Personality is defined as the configuration of characteristics and ways of behaving which describe an individual’s unique adjustment to his environment. There are many theories of personality that attempt to explain the nature of personality organization or personality structure.
TYPE THEORIES. It is the theory of body types as determiners of personality. It is developed by William Sheldon using the three components of body types which are the Endomorph, Mesomorph, and Ectomorph.
Sheldon believes that obese individuals or persons who show preponderance of endormophy likely to seek comfort, loves fine food, sociable and are greatly interested in seeking affection. While people under Mesomorph are energetic but tends to be aggressive and self-assertive. They are those people who have those big biceps, hard abs and a model-like body type. Those long, thin and poorly developed persons belong to Ectomorphic which is believed to be inhibited and mostly to avoid social contacts.
In which type do you belong? Try to look at yourself in the mirror and tell if Sheldon’s theory really states your personality.
Another theory formulated is Psychological Type Theory proposed by Carl G. Jung in which he classified individuals into two, the Introverts and the Extroverts.
He stated that Introverts tends to withdraw into themselves especially in times of emotional stress or conflict. They are shy and prefer to work alone. While looking on the other side, the Extroverts they are sociable, well dressed and outgoing. They tend to lose themselves among people.
According to William (1956), the basis of one’s personality is the chemistry of the body which leads to another theory the Psychoanalytic theory. He listed four types of personality – sanguine, phlegmatic, melancholic and choleric.
The sanguine person is warm-hearted and pleasant; has a prominence of blood. The phlegmatic is listless and slow. These qualities are attributed to phlegm. The melancholic suffers from depression and sadness because of having too much black bile. The choleric person is angered or temperamental as influenced by yellow bile.
Personality is considered as complex interacting traits. We as individuals may not also know our own personality or on what traits do we show to the world. Using these theories we’ll be educated on how we acquire these personalities.
Authors: Lady Sheena Detablan and Carla Ornillo
Stress is your body’s way of responding to any kind of demand. Its symptoms may be mental, physical or social and include headaches, frustration, loss or increase of appetite, oversleeping or sleeplessness.
Everybody experiences stress at some point of life, stress can be work or job related, family related or can be because of your studies, poor health, financial problems etc. At times the death of a close person also causes stress. Some people handle stress effectively while some people fail to take appropriate steps to distress their life.
Following are some of the easy ways by which you can handle your stress:
Being positive is the most effective way of handling stress. Have a positive outwork towards and belief in life. Always believe that you are living in a friendly universe and whatever is happening in your life is happening for your own good. Use positive self-talks and visualize positive things in your life.
Gratitude is the key to a happy and peaceful living. You can either feel tensed or grateful, you cannot experience these two feelings together. There is always something to be grateful for in your life even in a hopeless situation. You can be grateful for the simplest thing such as the air you breathe to bigger things in your life like your home, your family, your health etc. Stop and count your blessings.
Smile more often:
Smile as much as you can. As said by Mother Teresa “Peace begins with a smile.” and “Every time you smile at someone, it is an action of love, a gift to that person, a beautiful thing.”
By meditating every day you can develop a great balance in your life. You will see a remarkable difference in the amount of your stress, if you can take time out and meditate for at least ten minutes. There are different ways to practice meditation, choose the one which fits you and your lifestyle.
Take care of your health and body by the way of eating healthy foods and snacks. Exercise every day and drink loads of water and avoid oily and unhealthy foods. Develop a good sleeping habit.
Learn to relax yourself. There are various relaxation techniques you can either listen to a soft music, or visit a spa or best go for a vacation either all by yourself or with your family.
Soft and calm Music is a great distress agent. Music makes a person light and happy. You can listen to your favorite song or even sing along with the song, this will lift your spirits up and you will again feel wonderful and happy.
Do not push yourself harder towards fulfilling your goal. Have patience and be logical and realistic. Don’t strain yourself by trying to accomplish everything in one single day. Learn to say “no”.
Laughter is the best medicine. Laughs as much as you can, you can watch comedy movies and serials.
Friends are a great stress buster. Take some time out to hang out with your friends and enjoy your life.
You are born to enjoy your life, so worry less and be happy!
The main key to success is to keep a list of things that help you to cope with stress and that works for you. When dealing with your stress stop living in the past, express yourself in writings and art, listen objectively to feedback from others, do not let your pride get in the way, but offer your point of view in a calm manner. Always be honest about how you feel, but do not tread on other's feelings waiting/worrying about the future, live for today. Learn what is controllable in your life and what is not, if it's not controllable, shift your response, and stop reflecting on things that did not work out, let the past be the past, learn from your mistakes, don't let them control your life now then plan out the steps to solve the problem.
Hiponia and Montero, Authors
An altered state of consciousness is a temporary change in one's normal mental state without being considered unconscious. Altered states of consciousness can be created intentionally, or they can happen by accident or due to illness.
Do you remember the last time you had a very high fever? Sometimes during high fevers, sick people can feel dreamy, have hallucinations, or simply be unable to react to their environment in a normal way. Many illnesses can cause altered states of consciousness, such as those that cause sleep or oxygen deprivation. There are also many common experiences that can create altered states of consciousness, such as sleeping or daydreaming, childbirth, sleep deprivation, sexual euphoria, or panic.
Often, people intentionally try to alter their conscious state. There are many reasons people try to attain an altered state of consciousness, including religious and spiritual reasons, relaxation, and even hypnosis to increase health. Let's take a look at a few of the more common altered states of consciousness a person may experience.
Examples of Altered States Everyone has experienced dreams and can relate to this common altered state of consciousness. Although we are not 'awake' during sleep, we are still conscious and can react to our surroundings. We may awaken from a loud noise or somebody shaking our leg. During sleep, we experience images, sounds, and feelings that are not real. Many dreams are forgotten after waking, but we all know that dreams can feel very real when we are in them. If you have ever had a dream about falling, you can probably recall the influence of this altered state of consciousness.
Daydreaming is also considered an altered state of consciousness. Many people daydream when they are bored. Like dreaming, daydreaming can feel very real and cause realistic images, memories, and feelings, as well as the reactions that go with them. Psychologists believe that hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness that allows a person to be more open to suggestion. Although people can perform hypnosis for comedy and magic shows, psychologists can also be trained in hypnosis.
Psychologists can use hypnosis to help contain unmanageable feelings or to help a person reach a goal, such as losing weight or quitting smoking. Psychologists use hypnosis to suggest new feelings, thoughts, and behaviors to clients while they are in this altered state.
Jorie G. Sta. Ana, Author
A key insight that is helpful in understanding one’s own motivation and that of others is to think in terms of intrinsic rather than extrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation is typified by incentives, bribes, rewards and manipulation of one’s own behavior and that of others. Intrinsic motivation, in contrast, recognizes that the only lasting, healthy motivation comes from within each of us.
Imagine that you were conducting a research study on the motivation of physical science students to pursue a degree beyond their bachelors. You find that 75% of those who responded said they chose to get an advanced degree because they loved the field of business, enjoyed school, or enjoyed learning about new things. The other 25% indicated that they got an advanced degree to get a raise, find a job with better benefits, or to earn their parents' approval. The reasons that the 25% gave for continuing are examples of extrinsic motivation.
Teachers may be very interested in fostering intrinsic motivation. If students are only interested in receiving grades or praise, and do not enjoy learning, then teaching may be very difficult. Students may not wish to think or apply their knowledge. They may only be concerned with what will be on the tests. In contrast, students who are intrinsically motivated may enjoy challenging work, and may think in greater depth about ideas.
1. Need: the physical or psychological deprivation in the body creates the needs. It is the lack of what we want. When the stimuli remains constant we don’t feel need. The tendency to restore a balanced condition in the body is known as Homeostasis. It is characterized by physiological functioning. The aroused condition motivates the organism to imitate behavior to remedy the need. For example, the person who is hungry needs food. Similarly, a person may desire for power. This shows motivational need has two categories: physiological (primary) or psychological (secondary). Physiological needs are basic necessities without which organism can’t live, for example need for food, rest, oxygen, water etc. psychological need are related to the individual happiness and wellbeing. For example, love, power, prestige, recognition, status etc.
2. Drive: an internal motivational state that is created by a need is a drive. For example, a hungry person seeks for food to satisfy his or her need. Drives are the action oriented component or the motion to fulfill the desire of the motivated behavior. Search for food by a hungry person can be translated into hunger drive. Drive can activate more than one response. Drive is the internal tension state that builds up until they are satisfied.
3. Incentive: the third concept that moves around the motivational cycle is incentive. Incentive is the appropriate object or situation toward which motivated behavior is directed. Incentive eases a need and reduces a drive. It can provide satisfaction for the aroused drive. For example, food is the incentive for the hungry person. It can be anything we have learned to value like money, status, and the approval of the others. Incentives control much of human behavior. An organism will approach positive incentive, and avoid negative incentives. For example cooked food is the positive incentive for the hungry person and chocolate is negative incentive as it will not satisfy the hunger of the person. Incentive either directs behavior towards or away forms them.
4. Reward: once the organism has obtained the incentive it drives pleasantness or satisfaction, which is the reward. Reward restores the homeostatic condition. It brings readjustment. It the reward is achieved, the individual feels inspired, and his or her performance will improve. For example, food is reward for hungry person who feels relieved and satisfied with it. Chocolates may not be his reward as it will not satisfy his hunger. If a person is fully satisfied the homeostasis sate is achieved for that particular need.
We know that person has unlimited wants, needs or desire. As soon as one need is satisfied another crops up. The person starts to work (or get motivated) to fulfill that want this leads to start of new motivation cycle. Thus this cycle never stops it goes on and on. If the need moving in a cycle is not fully satisfied, it moves again to find its need. As a result every individual is dominated by the motivation.
Author: Joshua Martin Q. Serrano
Intelligence and personality are two integral components involved in psychological development that can be examined according to concrete stages. One of the most prominent researchers that investigated psychological development using stage theories is Erikson. He provided perspectives on the study of psychology that had never been experienced before, and pioneered revolutionary ideas, especially in regards to stages of development throughout the life-span. Like all theories, the ideas proposed by him have limitations, but have important implications for the study of development as well as for the field of social work. Erikson introduced this theory that would continue to influence psychological research and practice.
Erikson developed an eight-stage theory of psychological development that occurs as people grow through the entire lifespan. Each stage contained within this theory of development consists of a crisis that must be confronted and overcome. These crises represent psychological turning points that are characterized by "increased vulnerability" and "enhanced potential" (Essortment, 2002). Healthy development results from the effective resolution of the crises within these psycho-social stages of development.
His theory indirectly reveals that our personality traits come in opposites; we think of ourselves as optimistic or pessimistic, independent or dependent, emotional or unemotional, adventurous or cautious, leader or follower, aggressive or passive. Many of these are inborn temperament traits, but other characteristics, such as feeling either competent or inferior, appear to be learned, based on the challenges (mind: psychological, and physical), and support due to social ( relationships) we receive in growing up.
As a youth aged 13-21 years old, identity vs role confusion is my crisis. I should have to overcome this crisis so that I could progress and take the next step towards young adulthood. Let us take this example: Many of our ages, try to deny their real identity whether they are boy or girl, temporarily ending up a gender between the two sex, gay or the lesbian.
While Erikson's model emphasises the sequential significance of the eight character-forming crisis stages, the concept also asserts that humans continue to change and develop throughout their lives, and that personality is not exclusively formed during early childhood years. It is certainly a view that greatly assists encouraging oneself and others to see the future as an opportunity for positive change and development, instead of looking back with blame and regret.
The better that people come through each crisis, the better they will tend to deal with what lies ahead, but this is not to say that all is lost and never to be recovered if a person has had a negative experience during any particular crisis stage. Lessons can be revisited successfully when they recur, if we recognise and welcome them.
He was keen to improve the way children and young people are taught and nurtured, and it would be appropriate for his ideas to be more widely known and used in day-to-day life as it is very powerful for self-awareness and improvement, and for teaching and helping others.
Carla Ornillo, Author
It is quite true that man lives by bread alone — when there is no bread. But what happens to man’s desires when there is plenty of bread and when his belly is chronically filled?
At once other (and “higher”) needs emerge and these, rather than physiological hungers, dominate the organism. And when these in turn are satisfied, again new (and still “higher”) needs emerge and so on. This is what we mean by saying that the basic human needs are organized into a hierarchy of relative prepotency.
Abraham Maslow arrage human needs in a hierarchy from stronger and lower to weaker and higher.These essence of Maslow's study suggested that what people really want is more of everything.People desire a better situation for themselves.They want only what they do not have and thus,satisfied needs do not motivate behavior.Needs or wants can be arranged in a hierarchy according to importance.Thus,when needs on the lower level are fullfilled,those on the higher level of emerge and demand satisfaction.
Proposed by 19th century scholars Wiliam James and Carl Lange, the James-Lange Theory of Emotion presents a sequence explaining the cause-and-effect relationship between emotions and physiological events
Event ==> Arousal ==> Interpretation ==> Emotion
The above sequence summarizes the Theory of Emotion, a combination of concepts developed by William James, a psychologist from the United States and Carl Lange, a physiologist from Denmark. According to the theory, when an event stimulates a person (arousal), the autonomic nervous system (ANS) reacts by creating physiological manifestations such as faster heartbeat, more perspiration, increased muscular tension, and more. Once these physical events occur, the brain will interpret these reactions. The result of the brain’s interpretation is an emotion. In this sense, the theory is likened to the “fight-or-flight” reaction, in which the bodily sensations prepare a person to react based on the brain’s interpretation of the event and the physiological events.
In his statements, Lange attempted to give a simple explanation of his theory by relating its concept to the concept of common sense. He said that our common sense tells us that if a person encounters a bear, he tends feel afraid and then he runs. According to Lange’s theory, seeing a bear causes the ANS to stimulate the muscles to get tensed and the heart to beat faster. After such bodily changes, that is the time that emotion of fear emerges.
It is as simple as saying that statement A, “My heart beats faster because I am afraid.” is more rational than statement B, “I am afraid because my heart beats faster. ”Furthermore, Lange explained that statement B would just make the perception of the event a pure cognitive occurrence, and would be “destitute of emotional warmth”.
One person may respond to being laid-off from a job with anger, while another person responds with joy—it depends on how the individual evaluates this event. Having this evaluative component in the process means that an emotion is not a simple and direct response to a stimulus. In this way, emotions differ from reflexes such as the startle response or the eye-blink response, which are direct responses to certain kinds of stimuli.